“Dihilangkan” dalam Peta Jepang: Kota Kamagasaki, Sudut Kumuh Negeri Sakura

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“Dihilangkan” dalam Peta Jepang: Kota Kamagasaki, Sudut Kumuh Negeri Sakura


Airin-District_Osaka_Japan02JEPANG identik dengan kemajuan dan modernisasi. Bukan hanya penduduknya yang maju, kota-kota di Jepang pun sangat maju, refleksi dari kemajuan tekonologi yang berhasil dikembangkan negara sakura ini.

Kota-kota besar di Jepang, merupakan “hutan” gedung-gedung pencakar langit. Desa-desa di Jepang pun tak lepas dari kemajuan teknologinya.

Namun, pernah terlintas di benak Anda bahwa Jepang pun tak lepas dari keberadaan kota kumuh, seperti layaknya sebagian kota-kota di negara berkembang? Kota dengan kondisi lingkungan yang tidak tertata, sanitasi buruk, tingkat kriminalitas tinggi, dan banyaknya orang-orang miskin tak mempunyai rumah.

Anda mungkin tak percaya kalau disebutkan bahwa Jepang pun mempunyai kota kumuh, lengkap dengan kehidupan penduduknya yang berada di bawah garis kemiskinan. Kota dimaksud bernama Airinchi-ku yang sebelum tahun 1966 bernama Kamagasaki. Meskipun telah berganti nama menjadi Airinchi-ku, namun kota ini lebih dikenal dengan nama Kamagasaki.

Kota Kamagasaki tidak ada dalam peta Jepang. Entah apa alasan pemerintah Jepang hingga meniadakan kota kumuh ini dalam petanya. Bahkan dari berbagai sumber yang diperoleh kisuta.com, pemerintah Jepang pun tak memasukkan penduduk kota ini sebagai sasaran sensus penduduk.

Penduduk kota yang ada sejak tahun 1922 ini sekitar 25.000 orang. Sebagian bekerja di perusahaan kontraktor seperti pekerja jalanan pembuat aspal, angkut batu bata serta pekerjaan kasar lain. Sebagian lagi menjadi buruh serabutan dan sisanya merupakan pengangguran, gelandangan, dan anggota Yakuza.

Mayoritas dari mereka tinggal di tempat penampungan gratis atau dormitori murah seharga 8 dolar AS per malam. Hari-hari mereka diwarnai dengan mencari kerja di pusat informasi kerja dan kesejahteraan rakyat. Sore hari, mereka kembali ke tempat penampungan, mengantre makan dan minum gratis, serta untung-untungan mencari dan mendapat tiket tempat tidur gratis.

Kisah kota kumuh Kamagasaki ini pernah diabadikan oleh seorang fotografer bernama Seiryo Inoue sekitar tahun 1950-an. Karya fotografi berjudul “Seratus Wajah Kamagasaki” itu, mengantarkan sang fotografer mendapatkan penghargaan “Pendatang Baru” dari Japan Photography Critics Society tahun 1961.

Kekumuhan Kota Kamagasaki juga sempat dibuat film oleh sutradara film Jepang, Shingo Ota. Film yang diikutsertakan dalam Festival Film Osaka ini ditarik oleh sang sutradara karena menolak keinginan panitia supaya bagian kumuh dalam filmnya dipotong.

“Bagi saya, itu sama juga sensor dan kita hanya berusaha menutupi saja kenyataan yang ada, membuat tempat ini (Kamagasaki) seolah tidak pernah ada,” paparnya kepada pers belum lama ini.











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